Chemical Content

What Are The Lithium Uses?



When looking for the answer to what are the lithium uses, honestly, many uses will be found of this substance. Lithium is used in the treatment of mental health diseases. To treat bipolar disorder, lithium carbonate is used. To stabilize wild mood swings that are brought about by bipolar disorder, a common method of treatment is by the use of lithium carbonate. Studies have shown that lithium can help in reducing the risk of suicide. Lithium could also prevent or relieve bipolar depression. Lithium drug is also very helpful in the reduction of the frequency, as well as the severity of mania. Lithium is used in batteries and it is also used in the manufacture of aircraft. It is also used to make ceramics and glass.


So Just Where Is Lithium Found?

Chile is the biggest lithium producer in the world. At the Atacama Salt Flat in Chile, lithium is extracted here from brine. Lithium is extracted from lithium chloride salts and these can be obtained in pools of brine. Lithium is also extracted from lithium minerals which are seen in igneous rocks, primarily rocks like spodumene. Other leading countries in the production of lithium are Brazil, Portugal, China, Zimbabwe, Australia and Argentina.


Physical Properties Of Lithium

The name lithium, is derived from the word ‘lithos’, which happens to be the Greek word for ‘stone.’ The Atomic Number of lithium is 3 and the symbol for lithium is Li. The Density of lithium is 0.534 grams per cubic centimeter. Lithium has a Boiling Point of 1342 degrees Celsius (2448 degrees Fahrenheit) and its Melting Point is 180.5 degrees Celsius (356.9 degrees Fahrenheit). The most common isotopes of lithium are Li-7 and Li-6.


Who Discovered Lithium?

In the 1790s, on the Swedish isle Utö, Jozé Bonifácio de Andralda e Silva, A Brazilian statesman and naturalist, discovered the mineral petalite (LiAISi4O10). Petalite was the color of white to gray. But when petalite was thrown into the fire, it flared up and turned to a bright crimson color. Then in the year 1817, Johan August Arfwedson, a Swedish chemist, found out that petalite contained an unknown element. But, though he was unable to isolate the metal in its entirety, he however did manage to isolate one of its salts. Then at last in the year 1855, Robert Bunsen, a German chemist and Augustus Matthiessen, a
British chemist, isolated lithium.


A Few Very Interesting Lithium Facts

-      Lithium is so light, it can float on water.
-      Though lithium is a metal, it can be cut with a knife.
-      Fires started by lithium are tough to douse.
-      Due to moisture being present in air, lithium corrodes when it is exposed to air.
-      As lithium is vital for the production of methamphetamine, it is very closely guarded.
-      There are theories that suggest that in the Big Bang, one of the 3 elements to have been created was lithium.
-      Even in a small amount, lithium has excellent strength and that is why it is used in common alloys.


There it is, all kinds of data on lithium, as well as info on what are the Lithium Uses

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What Are The Einsteinium Physical Properties?



Ever wondered what are the einsteinium physical properties? Einsteinium has an Atomic Number of 99. The state of einsteinium at 20 °C is solid. Einsteinium has an Electron Configuration of [Rn] 5f117s2. The ChemSpider ID (free chemical structure database) of einsteinium is 22356. Einsteinium has a Melting Point of 1133 K (1580 °F / 860 °C). The Relative Atomic Mass  of einsteinium is 252. The Key Isotope of einsteinium is 252Es. The CAS number of einsteinium is 7429-92-7.

Just What Is Einsteinium?

Einsteinium is a highly radioactive metal. It is synthetic. Only a tiny amount of it has been produced to date. In the actinide series, einsteinium is the first divalent metal. Einsteinium is the 7th transuranic element. When the first hydrogen bomb went off in 1952, a component of the debris was noted to be einsteinium. Though einsteinium cannot be attacked by alkalis, it can be attacked by acids, steam and oxygen.


Who Discovered Einsteinium?

In 1952, einsteinium was discovered by Albert Ghiorso, S.G. Thompson, G.G. Harvey and
G.R. Choppin.

Some Interesting Einsteinium Facts

Einsteinium is named after none other than Albert Einstein. Einsteinium has many names in different languages and these are Italian: Einsteinio, Croatian: Einsteinij, Russian: Эйнштейний, Swedish: Einsteinium, Latin: Einsteinium, Norwegian: Einsteinium, German: Einsteinium – s, Czech: Einsteinium, Spanish: Einstenio, French: Einsteinium and Portuguese: Einstênio. Due to its radioactivity, einsteinium is toxic. There is no known biological role of einsteinium. As a result of the neutron bombardment of plutonium that takes place within a nuclear reactor, a few milligrams of einsteinium are obtained. Apart from it being used in research work, einsteinium uses are none. There is today a cryptocurrency known as einsteinium coin.


How Much Does Einsteinium Cost?
Einsteinium cannot be purchased for the plain and simple fact that not enough of it has been produced, for it to be sold.

The above then are the Einsteinium Physical Properties and various other data on this material.


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A Few Very Interesting Ytterbium Facts


A few very interesting ytterbium facts are bound to surprise, so read on and find out more.  The name Ytterbium, has its origins from a Swedish village called Ytterby. Ytterby is a small town located near to Stockholm and this village also played a role in the naming of yttrium, terbium and erbium.

Who Discovered Ytterbium?

A Swedish chemist by the name of Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, in the year 1878, found in the earth a new component, which he named ytterbia. Later on, in the year 1907, Georges Urbain, a French chemist, separated ytterbia into two components. He named these two components lutecia, now known as lutetium and neoytterbia, now called ytterbium.


Is ytterbium a metal?

Ytterbium happens to be a rare earth metal.

Ytterbium Chemical Properties

The Chemical Formula of Ytterbium is Yb and it has an Atomic Number of 70. It is metallic silvery white in color and it has a Density of 6.90 g/cm3. The Boiling Point of ytterbium is 1469 K (1196 °C or 2185 °F). Ytterbium has a Melting Point of 1092 K (819 °C or 1506 °F). The Atomic Weight of Ytterbium is 173.054 and it has a CAS Registry ID of 7440-64-4.


Where Is Ytterbium Found?

Ytterbium can be obtained from several rare minerals. It can also be found in xenotime and euxenite. Commercially, ytterbium can be recovered from monazite sand (0.03% ytterbium).

Ytterbium Isotopes

There are 7 naturally occurring isotopes of Ytterbium and these are ytterbium-171, ytterbium-168, ytterbium-176, ytterbium-172, ytterbium-174, ytterbium-173 and
ytterbium-170. There are also 10 radioactive isotopes of ytterbium and one of these, known as ytterbium-169, gives off gamma radiation that is akin to X rays.


Ytterbium Key Properties

These are as follows:
-      Ytterbium is malleable and ductile.
-      With acids and liquid ammonia, ytterbium reacts rapidly.
-      As compared to other lanthanide elements, ytterbium is a lot more reactive.
-      The surface of ytterbium is bright and shiny.
-      With water, ytterbium reacts slowly.

What Are The Ytterbium Uses?

There are quite a few uses of ytterbium and these include:
-      It is added as a doping agent to fiber optic cables.
-      It is used as a radiation source for x-ray machines.
-      It is added to stainless steel and the result of this is that the mechanical properties of stainless steel are enhanced.
-      It is used in the making of certain types of lasers.

These are a few very interesting Ytterbium Facts! 



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What Are The Stainless Steel Properties?



The answer to what are the Stainless Steel Properties is that there are many superb properties of this material and that is why it is in such big demand today, in many different applications. The density of stainless steel is 7.7 g/cm³. Stainless steel has superb formability and weldability. Stainless steel has excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Stainless steel has outstanding resistance to corrosion and it also offers increased resistance to chloride attacks.


So What Are The Stainless Steel Properties?

Stainless steel has many advantages, as compared to mild steel and these are:
-  Higher cryogenic toughness
-  Higher hot strength
-  Higher strength and hardness
-  Higher corrosion resistance
-  Lower maintenance
-  Higher ductility
-  Higher work hardening rate
-  Better attractive appearance


What Is The Stainless Steel Composition?

Stainless steel is an iron alloy that is composed of steel and it is mixed with elements like aluminum, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, carbon and silicon. Stainless steel has a primary component in it, namely carbon, in which carbon and iron are mixed, to make steel. So as to make stainless steel resistant to rust, chromium is added to it.

What Are The Stainless Steel Types?

Stainless steel comes in 3 main types and these are ferritic, austenitic and martensitic. These 3 types of stainless steel can be identified by their predominant crystal phase or by their microstructure.


What Are The Various Stainless Steel Grades?

Stainless steel is available in various grades and these are as follows:
      -   18-8: This is the 300 series of stainless steel which has roughly 8% nickel and 18% chromium.
      -   304: It is the basic stainless steel alloy. This is austenitic stainless steel. It is non-magnetic. It has to be cold worked, as it is not possible to harden it with heat treatment.
    -   316: This is best for use in environments that are very harsh. It is non-magnetic, austenitic and thermally nonhardenable.

The above are the main types of stainless steel. There are also other types of stainless steel like 301, 302, 303, 303Se, 305, 309-309S, 310-310S, 321, 330, 347 – 348, 405, 430, 430F-430Se, 442, 446, 410, 403, 416-416Se, 420, 431 and 440C.


What Is Stainless Steel Used For?

Stainless steel has a low maintenance, it is very strong and it also offers very high resistance to corrosion. It is also 100% recyclable and it has a long life cycle. As such, it is used in many different applications like desalination plants, springs, cooking utensils, knife blades, food pickling plants, fuel lines, cutlery, chemical & petrochemical plants, surgical instruments, shafts, marine applications, vehicle exhausts, heat exchangers, fasteners, off-shore oil & gas installations, etc.

Above are all kinds of useful data on stainless steel, as well as the Stainless Steel Properties




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What Are The Chemical Properties Of Copper?


What are the chemical properties of copper and other interesting facts about copper? Fact is, the oldest metal to be used by humans is none other than copper. The building industry is the largest user of copper today and in this industry the copper uses are many and these include: rainwater systems, electrical wiring, roofing, heating systems, water pipes and fittings, cladding, oil and gas lines, etc. 

The Many Common Uses Of Copper

Copper is used in a number of applications and these include the likes of: architecture, refrigeration tubing, spark plugs, power transmission lines, plumbing, high conductivity wires, cooking utensils, electrodes, water-cooled copper crucibles, heat exchangers, electrical wiring, cables, busbars, etc. Copper is also used in printed circuit boards, structural power wiring, vacuum tubes, heat sinks, cathode ray tubes, etc.


The Chemical Properties Of Copper And Other Properties

The symbol of copper is Cu, which is derived from the Latin word cuprum. The Atomic Number of copper is 29. The Boiling Point of copper is 2567 °C. Copper has a Melting Point of 1083 ºC and it has a Specific Gravity of 20 °C (8.96). The Density of copper is 8.93 g/cm3. The Standard Atomic Weight of copper is 63.546. The Thermal Conductivity of copper at 20 °C is 394 W/m*K. at 20 °C. Copper has an Electrical Conductivity of 57 m/(Ω*mm2). The Temperature Coefficient Of Electrical Conductivity of copper is 0,0039/K and it has a Thermal Expansion of 17*10-6/K. Copper has a Specific Heat Density of 0.39 J/g*K. The Heat of Fusion of copper is 214 J/g and its Crystal Structure is face-centered cubic (FCC).


The Physical Properties Of Copper

Copper has a metallic reddish color. It is ductile and it is malleable. Copper offers excellent corrosion resistance, as well as biofouling resistance. Copper has superb electrical conductivity and it also has very good heat conductivity. It has low chemical reactivity. Copper is non-magnetic and it has excellent machinability. At cryogenic temperatures, copper has the capacity to retain its electrical and mechanical properties. Copper has superb Thermal Conductivity and it can be joined easily. Copper has antimicrobial properties, it is tough, it alloys easily and it also offers excellent resistance to corrosion.


Copper Facts

Copper has been used by humans from as early as 8000 BC. In 5000 BC, from sulfide ores, copper was the first metal to be smelted. In 4000 BC, the first mold shape to be cast from any metal, was that of copper. Copper is very often called the most important of all metals. In fact, if there were no copper, there would be no technical innovations, no communication and – even no electricity! Alloys of copper can be obtained by combining it with other elements. The most common alloys of copper are bronze and brass. Copper is very vital to life forms and the truth is that all fauna and flora, have evolved with the help of copper. Even the human body needs copper and in a balanced diet, this consists of getting around 2 milligrams of copper every day. Foods that are a rich source of copper are root vegetables, wheat, legumes, meats and even chocolate!

Those then are the chemical properties of copper and various other facts and relevant data about copper.